Probing the dynamics of the emergence of new scientific knowledge; patterns of technological development; and its applications, commercialisation, and diffusion.
This is crucial both for understanding of the significance of new and emerging AI scientific fields and their applied context in the form of products and services; and to support technology, innovation and responsible innovation policy. Until the turn of the millennium, AI’s appeal lay largely in its promise to deliver, but in the last fifteen years, much of that promise has been redeemed. AI already pervades our lives. And as it becomes a central force in society, the field is now shifting from simply building systems that are intelligent to building intelligent systems that are human-aware and trustworthy.
Several factors have fueled the AI revolution. Foremost among them is the maturing of machine learning, supported in part by cloud computing resources and wide-spread, web-based data gathering. Machine learning has been propelled dramatically forward by “deep learning,” a form of adaptive artificial neural networks trained using a method called backpropagation. This leap in the performance of information processing algorithms has been accompanied by significant progress in hardware technology for basic operations such as sensing, perception, and object recognition. New platforms and markets for data-driven products, and the economic incentives to find new products and markets, have also contributed to the advent of AI-driven technology.
All these trends drive the “hot” areas of research. This compilation is meant simply to reflect the areas that, by one metric or another, currently receive greater attention than others. They are not necessarily more important or valuable than other ones. Indeed, some of the currently “hot” areas were less popular in past years, and it is likely that other areas will similarly re-emerge in the future.
AI has the power to transform human life and society by transforming the very nature of how things are done. Global AI researchers are tackling the most challenging problems of time with interdisciplinary, cutting-edge initiatives in key areas. By bringing together the greatest minds in computer science, AI researchers seek to develop revolutionary new methods for advancing education, manufacturing, healthcare and complex systems.